Through this behavior arise personal values, familial values, cultural values, intellectual values, religious values, aesthetic values, architectural values, gastronomic values-the list is endless. Human existence is value-laden. Ethics studies moral and ethical values.
Kant then argues that those things that are usually thought to be good, such as intelligenceperseverance and pleasurefail to be either intrinsically good or good without qualification.
Pleasure, for example, appears not to be good without qualification, because when people take pleasure in watching someone suffer, this seems to make the situation ethically worse. He concludes that there is only one thing that is truly good: Nothing in the world—indeed nothing even beyond the world—can possibly be conceived which could be called good without qualification except a good will.
He defines respect as "the concept of a worth which thwarts my self-love". Act only according to that maxim by which you can also will that it would become a universal law. Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.
Every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in a universal kingdom of ends. Kant argued that the only absolutely good thing is a good will, and so the single determining factor of whether an action is morally right is the will, or motive of the person doing it.
If they are acting on a bad maxim, e. For a lie always harms another; if not some human being, then it nevertheless does harm to humanity in general, inasmuch as it vitiates the very source of right [Rechtsquelle] All practical principles of right must contain rigorous truth This is because such exceptions would destroy the universality on account of which alone they bear the name of principles.
If God commands people not to work on Sabbaththen people act rightly if they do not work on Sabbath because God has commanded that they do not do so. If they do not work on Sabbath because they are lazy, then their action is not truly speaking "right", even though the actual physical action performed is the same.
One thing that clearly distinguishes Kantian deontologism from divine command deontology is that Kantianism maintains that man, as a rational being, makes the moral law universal, whereas divine command maintains that God makes the moral law universal.
For instance, Kamm argues that we believe it would be impermissible to kill one person to harvest his organs in order to save the lives of five others.
Yet, we think it is morally permissible to divert a runaway trolley that would otherwise kill five innocent and immobile people onto a side track where one innocent and immobile person will be killed.
Kamm believes the Principle of Permissible Harm explains the moral difference between these and other cases, and more importantly expresses a constraint telling us exactly when we may not act to bring about good ends—such as in the organ harvesting case.
InKamm published a book that presents new theory that incorporates aspects of her "Principle of Permissible Harm", the "Doctrine of Productive Purity". Attempts have been made to reconcile deontology with virtue-based ethics and consequentialism.
King develops a hierarchy of principles to link his meta-ethics, which are more inclined towards consequentialism, with the deontological conclusions he presents in his book.One such example is the moral model of addiction, a psycho-social explanation of addiction that led to stigma and intolerance, and kept many people from seeking help.
The Moral Model. There are a number of models that have been posed in an effort to understand and explain addiction, and the favored model has changed throughout the years. Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect.
and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed. The superego operates on the morality principle and motivates us to behave in a. Anca Mustea, Oana Negru, A. Opre Morality and Religion: A Psychological Perspective Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 9, 26 (Summer ) 34 23 Jonathan Haidt et al.
The concept of the "point of view" is highly multifunctional and ambiguous. Many things may be judged from certain personal, traditional or moral points of view (as in "the beauty is in the eye of the beholder"). Our knowledge about the reality is often relative to a certain point of view.
The following is an excerpt from article DE from the Christian Research Institute. The full pdf can be viewed by clicking here. Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics.
Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral [ ].
2. Background. Physician-assisted suicide is a form of euthanasia in which the physician does not. actually give the patient a life-ending drug, but provides the patient with the drug that they can take themselves.
It is a form of suicide, with the doctor providing the materials used to .